Saturday, October 24, 2009

greatest possible inspiration followed by greatest possible expiration the volume of air exchanged is called?

vital capacity
Bronchial Provocation Test
What is a Bronchial Provocation test?
The bronchial provocation test evaluates how sensitive the airways in your lungs are. A spirometry breathing test is done before and after you inhale a spray. One example of the spray that may be inhaled is methacholine. Spirometry can show how much air you can breathe in and out. It also shows how fast you can breathe in and out. The spirometry results are compared before and after you inhale the spray to see what changes there are in your breathing. You will be given additional information in PPU at the time of the test.A larygoscopy may be scheduled after the bronchial provocation test. A larygoscopy is often done to identify if your vocal cords may be causing you to have trouble breathing.How do you get ready for the test?
Please follow these directions when getting ready for this test. These medicines will affect the results of some of these tests and need to be stopped before the testing is done. If the medicine is not stopped before the test we will not be able to complete the test.Stop this inhaled medicine for 7 days before your appointment:
Spiriva庐 (tiotropium)
Stop these inhaled medicines for 48 hours before your appointment: Advair庐 (Serevent庐 and Flovent庐)
Serevent庐 (Salmeterol)
Foradil庐 (Formoterol)
Intal庐 (Cromolyn), Tilade庐 (Nedocromil)
Stop these inhaled medicines for 24 hours before your appointment:
Atrovent庐 (Ipratropium), Combivent庐
Stop these oral medicines for 24 hours before your appointment:
Accolate庐 (zafirlukast)
Zyflo庐 (zileuton)
Singular庐 (montelukast)
Stop these oral medicines for 24 hours before your appointment:
Volmax庐, Ventolin庐, Proventil庐, Proventil Repetabs庐 (Albuterol), Metaprel庐 (Metaproterenol), Bricanyl庐, Bethaine庐 (Terbutaline)
Stop these inhaled medicines for 6-8 hours before your appointment:
Proventil庐, Ventolin庐 (Albuterol), Xopenex庐 (Levalbuterol), Maxair庐 (Pirbuterol), Alupent庐, Metaprel庐 (Metaproterenol), Brethaire庐, Brethine庐 (Terbutaline), Tornalate庐 (Bitolterol), Bronkosol庐 (Isoetharine), Isuprel庐 (Isoproterenol), Primatene庐 Mist.
Continue to take all your other medicine as you usually do.
Adults - If a laryngoscopy is scheduled at the same time, do not eat for 2 hours before the test is scheduled.
Children - If a laryngoscopy is scheduled at the same time, do not eat for 3 hours before the test is scheduled. What is done during the bronchial provocation test?
You will do a number of breathing tests. You will be asked to inhale a spray between the breathing tests. The technician will explain what you need to do during each test. A good effort during the testing is important to get good results. The technician will coach you during each test to help you give a good effort. If you have questions during the tests, please ask the technician.You may be asked to sit in a Plexiglas booth for some of the testing. This booth is called a body box or plethysmograph. You will do different breathing techniques, blowing into a tube, while in the booth. Each breathing technique is often repeated to make sure the test is reliable.If your doctor has scheduled you for a laryngoscopy this will be done right after the breathing tests are completed. During the laryngoscopy a doctor will place a small tube (fiberoptic probe) in your nose. The tube is passed through your nose to the back of your throat after topical anathesia is applied. The movement of the vocal cords can be seen with the probe. Please do not eat 2 to 3 hours prior to the test if a Laryngoscopy has been scheduled.How long will the test take?
Bronchial provocation testing often takes 1 陆 to 2 hours.There is a simple asthma test. You will blow into a machine called a spirometer, both before and after taking an inhaled medicine. This test is positive for asthma if the result after the inhaled medicine is 20% higher than it was before the inhaled medicine.There is a complex asthma test that is the gold standard for diagnosing asthma. This is called a methacholine challenge. You will blow into a spirometer before and after each increasing dose of an inhaled medicine. This test is positive for asthma if the result after the inhaled medicine is 20% lower than it was before the inhaled medicine.Clinical trials boost for asthma test
8 October 2002A US company developing a laser-based system for asthma diagnosis has received a cash boost to support clinical trials.Ekips Technologies received USD 100 000 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to help obtain FDA approval of a laser-based system for diagnosing asthma.The device, called the Breathmeter, works by monitoring spectroscopically the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled breath. High levels of the molecule are an indication of an undiagnosed asthmatic patient, or of a known asthmatic whose treatment is not working sufficiently. A recent study concluded that up to 40% of asthma patients in the US received inadequate medication for their condition.Clinical trials of the Breathmeter are underway at The Lung Center in Oklahoma. The optical system uses tunable diode-laser spectroscopy (TDLAS) in the mid-infrared to detect NO.The setup is based around a IV-VI double-heterostructure laser made from an alloy of lead, strontium and selenium, with an active region similar in composition to lead selenide. The tunable device emits at around 5.2 碌m. It measures levels of carbon dioxide simultaneously, which acts as an internal calibration standard for exhaled NO and corrects for any variations in the flow of gas exhaled.Patrick McCann, an Oklahoma University researcher who founded Ekips, told that the PbSrSe laser is the only laser device currently sensitive enough for asthma diagnosis. "Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have been operated at room temperature and used to measure NO, but they have not been able to measure the low concentrations [of around 1 part per billion] that are needed for breath measurements," he said."Cryogenic cooling and continuous-wave operation of QCLs improves sensitivity to the necessary range, but then the integration times become too long for real-time analysis."McCann believes that this demonstration of IV-VI lasers for practical healthcare will serve as a new benchmark for laser performance. He adds that key areas where IV-VI lasers are superior to QCLs are wide tunability and low waste heat generation.Mark Camp is a lead investigator in the clinical trials, which are taking place at The Lung Center in Oklahoma. He says that the Ekips system looks promising: "Early results show that it provides consistent exhaled NO measurements related to airway inflammation - even when NO measurements vary widely due to environmental conditions."The clinical trials are expected to be completed in mid-2003. Breath tests for other gases that absorb in the mid-infrared could potentially be used to diagnose conditions as diverse as lung cancer and schizophrenia.Asthma affects about one out of every twenty persons. Typical symptoms include cough, especially with exercise, shortness of breath, chest tightness, wheezing (a whistling sound made breathing out, usually associated with shortness of breath) and a lingering cough after colds. It's often inherited, so other family members might have asthma or other allergic disorders. The test for asthma is a simple and painless breathing test called spirometry (pulmonary function test) and involves blowing forcefully into a tube. Asthma specialists, such as allergists and pulmonologists, can usually perform this test in their office. If you think you might have asthma, ask your doctor to suggest a good asthma specialist for you to see. Good luck, Dr. White -- Dr. Martha Vetter White, MD, is cofounder and director of research at the Institute for Asthma %26Allergy in the Washington, DC metropolitan area, one of the nation's most active clinical research centers devoted to allergy, asthma, and sinusitis.
Actually called FVC (Forced Vital Capacity).

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